Medical Education Division
Our Products
On-Line Store

Google
 
Web www.brooksidepress.org

Operational Medicine 2001
Field Medical Service School
Student Handbook

ANTIPERSONNEL DEVICES
FMST 0208
8 Nov 99

FMST Student Manual Multimedia CD
30 Operational Medicine Textbooks/Manuals
30 Operational Medicine Videos
"Just in Time" Initial and Refresher Training
Durable Field-Deployable Storage Case

 


Order the Operational Medicine CD, developed by the US Navy and US Special Operations Command

Important Notice!

You are looking at the old version of the Student Handbook. It has been replaced by the 2008 Version. To see the 2008 Version, Click Here.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE

1.      Given a combat environment (day and night), and individual combat equipment, perform immediate action against antipersonnel devices, per the reference.  (FMST.02.08)

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1.      Without the aid of reference materials and given a list of immediate actions, select the appropriate immediate actions to take against antipersonnel devices, per the student handout.  (FMST.02.08a)

2.      Without the aid of reference materials and given a list of antipersonnel devices and a list of characteristics, select the characteristics for the device, per the student handout.  (FMST.02.08b)

OUTLINE

A.     PURPOSE.  The purposes of antipersonnel devices are to:

  1. Destroy equipment and/or personnel.

  2. Delay the enemy.

  3. Channels the movement of the enemy to a chosen field of battle.

  4. Harass and demoralize the enemy.

  5. Supplement other weapons.

  6. Strengthen unit defense to economize forces

B.     GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT MINES.

1.  Definition.  A mine is an encased charge of explosive, bulk explosive or other materials, such as chemical charge, designed to destroy vehicles, boats and aircraft or to kill or otherwise incapacitate personnel.

C.     COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL MINE:

  1. Fuse

  2. Detonator

  3. Booster

  4. Main charge

  5. Body

 

D.     THE MAIN CHARGE CAN BE:  

  1. Explosive

  1. Toxic chemical agent

  1. Any material which will burst into flame

E.      THE FIRING CHAIN.

  1. Definition.  The series of events that sets off a mine.

a.       The chain begins with the initiating action.

b.      The initiating action acts on the fuse and causes it to fire.

c.       The fuse produces flames or concussion that sets off the detonator.

d.      The detonator sets off the booster or main charge.

F.      INITIATING ACTIONS:  

  1. Pressure

  2. Pull

  3. Pressure release

  4. Tension release

  5. Vibration

  6.  Radio signal

  7. Magnetic action

  8. Audio frequency

  9. Timer run down

  10. Electrical

G.     PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES TO REDUCE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENEMY MINES:

  1. Wear body armor and helmet.

  2. Use sandbags on vehicle flooring.

  3.   Maintain dispersion of personnel.

  4.   Do not pick up souvenirs.

  5.   Approach mine/booby trap casualties with caution.

  6.   Travel where local inhabitants travel.

H.     BE ALERT FOR TRIPWIRES IN THE FOLLOWING PLACES:

  1. Across trails.

  2. Route through dense plant growth.

  3. In villages and on roads or paths into them.

  4. In approaches to enemy positions.

I.        INDICATIONS OF MINE AND BOOBY TRAP PLACEMENT:

  1. Mud smear, mud balls, dung, boards or other materials on road.

  2. Disturbed tire marks, ruts, or skid marks.

  3. Suspicious items in tree or bushes.

  4. Enemy markings, the enemy will mark most mine/booby traps in some way.

J.       IMMEDIATE ACTION FOR ANTI-PERSONNEL DEVICES:

  1. Hit the deck with your feet in the direction of the blast, cover all exposed skin areas, and sound the alarm.

  2. If the mine is not tripped then mark the mine and contact E.O.D. Only as a last resort would you blow the mine.

K.    PROBING FOR MINES:

  1.   Remove any items that may interfere with your ability to probe.

  2.   Conduct probing.

  3.   Hold the probe in your hand palm up.

  4.   Push the probe gently into the ground at an angle less than 45 degrees.

  5.   Put just enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground.

  6.   Stop probing and remove the earth when a solid object is touched.

  7.   Probe every two inches across a one-meter front.

  8.   Move the probe forward two inches and probe across the one-meter front again.

  9.   Continue this procedure until the minefield has been breached.

  10.   Treat all mines as enemy mines.

L.      CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTI-PERSONNEL DEVICES:

  1. Anti-personnel mines are used primarily to inflict casualties on foot troops.  They are usually used with anti-tank mines to prevent enemy troops from freely entering the area and removing the anti-tank mines.  Anti-personnel mines are also used to harass or delay the enemy and for security reasons.  Because of their explosive charges, anti-personnel mines are not effective against armored vehicles.

  2.   These devises come in many shapes and sizes and, usually range from the small foot popper type that are about the size of a small soup can.  To the larger anti-armor types that are about the size of a small trash can lid but about, 8 to 10 inches thick.  They can be deployed in many different ways ranging from being hand laid, to being delivered by artillery and also by aircraft.

M.   MINES: 

M16Al anti-personnel mine ("bouncing betty"):

  1. Purpose:  Designed to inflict injuries on foot troops.

  2. Initiating action:  A bounding device, detonated by either pull or pressure.

  3. Kill range:  30 meters.

  4. Casualty range:  150 meters.

 

M18AI Anti-personnel mine ("Claymore"):

  1. Purpose:  Directional fixed fragmentation device; primarily used in the defense against massed infantry attacks. Penetrates thin-skinned vehicles Jeeps, automobiles & trucks) killing or injuring the occupants. Fragments can puncture tires, gas tanks, crankcases, etc. When detonated, a fan shaped sheaf of spherical steel fragments is projected in a 60-degree horizontal arc over an area of 50 meters and a height of 2 meters.

  2. Initiating action:  Manually.

  3. Kill range:  50 meters.

  4. Casualty range:  240 meters.

 

 

M-14 Anti-personnel mine:

  1. Purpose:  To effect non-lethal casualties to enemy foot troops.

  2. Initiating action:  Initiated by pull.

  3. Kill range:  None, it is a casualty mine.

  4. Casualty range:  Immediate area of detonation.

 

 

M25Anti-personnel Mine:

  1. Purpose:  To rapid employment by easily laying, arming and camouflaging.

  2. Initiating action:  It is a blast type mine detonated by pressure or pull action.

  3. Kill range:  None, it is a casualty mine.

  4. Casualty range:  Immediate area of detonation.

 

 

N.    HAND GRENADES:

Definition:  A Hand grenade is an explosive device that is self-contained.  It contains a timed detonator, which is called a fuse.  The body of the grenade can be made of many different materials which usually range from plastic to steel.  The body of the grenade is filled with a filler.  The type of filler in the body will determine the type of grenade, i.e. Smoke, Riot, illumination, fragmentation, just to name a few.

Nomenclature and function:


TYPES OF GRENADES: 

  1. Practice grenades

  2. Fragmentation

  3. Smoke

  4. Riot control

  5. Illumination

  6. Incendiary

  7. Offensive

  8. Rifle grenades

Parts of the hand grenade:

  1. The three main parts of a grenade are the body, the fuse, and the filler.

O.    CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR TYPES OF GRENADES:

M-69, Practice grenades:

  1. Purpose:  Training and practice, but it can be dangerous because of the metal fragments blowing out the bottom.

  2. Body:  Steel

  3. Color:  Blue

  4. Shape:  Baseball

  5. Weight:  14 ounces

  6. Capabilities:  This grenade can be thrown 40 meters by the average Marine and will have a small explosion to simulate a blast.

M-67, Fragmentation grenade:

  1. Purpose:  To supplement small arms fire against the enemy in close combat.

  2. Body:  Steel

  3. Color:  Olive drab green

  4. Shape:  Baseball shape

  5. Weight:  14 ounces

  6. Killing range: 5 meters(15 feet)

  7. Casualty range: 15 meters (45 feet)

  8. Capabilities:  This grenade can be thrown 40 meters by the average Marine and has a casualty producing radius of 15 meters.

 

M18Al, Smoke grenade:

  1. Purpose:  It is used as a ground to ground or ground to air signaling device.  It is used to identify units on the ground to other ground units and to air support.  It can also be used to screen the movement of small units for short periods of time.

  2. Body:  Sheet metal

  3. Color:  Olive drab with yellow markings

  4. Shape:  Cylindrical

  5. Weight:  19 ounces

  6. Filler:  Red, green, yellow, white and violet smoke

  7. Top:  The color on the top will indicate the color of the smoke.

  8. Capability:  This grenade can be thrown 35 meters by the average Marine.  It will then emit smoke for 50 to 90 seconds.

 

M7 Riot control grenade:

  1. Purpose: To aid in quelling civil disturbances, POW riots or similar disorders, which require the use of non-lethal agents to restore order.  It can also be used to assist in clearing buildings.

  2. Body:  Sheet metal

  3. Color:  Gray body with a red band and red markings

  4. Shape:  Cylindrical

  5. Weight:  15.5 ounces

  6. Filler:  CN or CS liquid and jelly combination

  7. Capability:  This grenade can be thrown 40 meters by the average Marine.  It will then emit a dense cloud of irritant agent for approximately 20 to 60 seconds, which can linger for hours.

 

M25A2, Riot control grenade:

  1. Purpose: To aid in quelling civil disturbances, POW riots or similar disorders, which require the use of non-lethal agents to restore order.  It can also be used to assist in clearing buildings.

  2. Body:  Compressed fiber or plastic.

  3. Color:  Gray body with a red band and red markings

  4. Shape:  Baseball

  5. Weight:  8 ounces

  6. Filler:  CN or CS liquid and jelly combination

  7. Capability:  This grenade can be thrown 50 meters by the average Marine.  It will then emit a dense cloudburst of irritant agent immediately upon detonation, which can linger for hours.

Before using any type of grenade that contains CS or CN, friendly forces should put on their protective masks and MOPP gear.

P.      SAFETY TIPS FOR THROWING GRENADES:

  1.   Always remain calm.

  2.   Always keep a firm grip.

  3.   Never milk (squeeze and release over and over) the grenade.

  4.   Always follow through when throwing a grenade.

Q.    TECHNICS FOR THROWING A GRENADE - RIGHT HANDED:

  1. Grasp grenade with the right hand ensuring that the safety lever (or spoon) is in the web portion of the hand.  (This is where the thumb and the index finger meet).  Making sure that you maintain a firm grip on the grenade.

  2.   Keeping the grenade in front of your body close to your chest, remove the safety clip with the left thumb.

  3.   Insert the left index finger into the pull ring, rotating at the same time, pulling the pull ring with the safety pin out of the grenade.

  4.   Extend the left arm in the direction in which you intend to throw the grenade.  Using the left arm as an aiming device bring the other hand with the grenade back to a cocked position and prepare to throw the grenade.

  5.   Throw the grenade as if throwing a baseball with a follow through method and hit the deck , at the same time putting your hands under your body and your face into the deck.  This is all done in one motion.

R.     TECHNICS FOR THROWING A GRENADE - LEFT HANDED:

  1. Left handed throwers must hold the grenade upside down in their throwing hand in order to remove the safety devices and properly throw the grenade.

  2. Grasp grenade with the left hand ensuring that the safety lever (or spoon) is in the web portion of the hand.  (This is where the thumb and the index finger meet). Making sure that you maintain a firm grip on the grenade.

  3. Keeping the grenade in front of your body close to your chest, remove the safety clip with the right thumb.

  4. Insert the right index finger into the pull ring, rotating at the same time, pulling the pull ring with the safety pin out of the grenade.

  5. Extend the right arm in the direction in which you intend to throw the grenade. Using the left arm as an aiming device bring the other hand with the grenade back to a cocked position (Bent at the elbow.), and prepare to throw the grenade.

  6. Throw the grenade as if throwing a baseball with a follow through method and hit the deck, at the same time putting your hands under your body and your face into the deck.  This is all done in one motion.

REFERENCE

Guidebook for Marines, FMFM 6-5, Chapter 9

Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals, FMFM 23-30


Field Medical Service School
Camp Pendleton, California

 

 

Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited.

The listing of any non-Federal product in this CD is not an endorsement of the product itself, but simply an acknowledgement of the source. 

Operational Medicine 2001
Health Care in Military Settings

Home    Military Medicine    Sick Call    Basic Exams    Medical Procedures    Lab and X-ray    The Pharmacy    The Library    Equipment    Patient Transport    Medical Force Protection    Operational Safety    Operational Settings    Special Operations    Humanitarian Missions    Instructions/Orders    Other Agencies    Video Gallery    Phone Consultation    Forms    Web Links    Acknowledgements    Help    Feedback

Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
Department of the Navy
2300 E Street NW
Washington, D.C
20372-5300

Operational Medicine
 Health Care in Military Settings
CAPT Michael John Hughey, MC, USNR
NAVMED P-5139
  January 1, 2001

United States Special Operations Command
7701 Tampa Point Blvd.
MacDill AFB, Florida
33621-5323

*This web version is provided by The Brookside Associates Medical Education Division.  It contains original contents from the official US Navy NAVMED P-5139, but has been reformatted for web access and includes advertising and links that were not present in the original version. This web version has not been approved by the Department of the Navy or the Department of Defense. The presence of any advertising on these pages does not constitute an endorsement of that product or service by either the US Department of Defense or the Brookside Associates. The Brookside Associates is a private organization, not affiliated with the United States Department of Defense.

Contact Us      Other Brookside Products

 

Advertise on this site