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First Aid for Soldiers FM 21-11

First Aid for Soldiers

Headquarters
Department of the Army,
Washington, D.C.,
October 27, 1988


*Table Of Contents

Change Page #1 Dated 28 August 1989

Change Page #2 Dated 4 December 1991

Preface

Chapter 1. Fundamental Criteria for First Aid

Section I. Evaluate Casualty

  1. 1-1. Casualty Evaluation (081-831-1000)

  2. 1-2. Medical Assistance (081-831-1000)

Section II. Understand Vital Body Functions

  1. 1-3. Respiration and Blood Circulation

  2. 1-4. Adverse Conditions

Chapter 2. Basic Measures for First Aid

Section I. Open the Airway and Restore Breathing

  1. 2-1. Breathing Process

  2. 2-2. Assessment (Evaluation) Phase (081-831-1000 and 081-831-1042)

  3. 2-3. Opening the Airway--Unconscious and Not Breathing Casualty (081-831-1042)

  4. 2-4. Rescue Breathing (Artificial Respiration)

  5. 2-5. Preliminary Steps--All Rescue Breathing Methods (081-831-1042)

  6. 2-6. Mouth-To-Mouth Method (081-831-1042)

  7. 2-7. Mouth-To-Nose Method

  8. 2-8. Heartbeat

  9. 2-12. Airway Obstructions

  10. 2-13. Opening the Obstructed Airway--Conscious Casualty (081-831-1003)

  11. 2-14. Open an Obstructed Airway--Casualty Lying or Unconscious (081-831-1042)

Section II. Stop the Bleeding and Protect the Wound

  1. 2-15. Clothing (081-831-1016)

  2. 2-16. Entrance and Exit Wounds

  3. 2-17. Field Dressing (081-831-1016)

  4. 2-18. Manual Pressure (081-831-1016)

  5. 2-19. Pressure Dressing (081-831-1016)

  6. 2-20. Tourniquet (081-831-1017)

Section III. Check and Treat for Shock

  1. 2-21. Causes and Effects

  2. 2-22. Signs/Symptoms (081-831-1000)

  3. 2-23. Treatment/Prevention (081-831-1005)

Chapter 3. First Aid for Special Wounds

Section I. Give Proper First Aid for Head Injuries

  1. 3-1. Head Injuries

  2. 3-2. Signs/Symptoms (081-831-1000)

  3. 3-3. General First Aid Measures (081-831-1000)

  4. 3-4. Dressings and Bandages

Section II. Give Proper First Aid for Face and Neck Injuries

  1. 3-5. Face Injuries

  2. 3-6. Neck Injuries

  3. 3-7. Procedure

  4. 3-8. Dressings and Bandages (081-831-1033)

Section III. Give Proper First Aid for Chest and Abdominal Wounds and Burn Injuries

  1. 3-9. Chest Wounds (081-831-1026)

  2. 3-10. Chest Wound(S) Procedure (081-831-1026)

  3. 3-11. Abdominal Wounds

  4. 3-12. Abdominal Wound(S) Procedure (081-831-1025)

  5. 3-13. Burn Injuries

  6. 3-14. First Aid for Burns (031-31-1007)

Section IV. Apply Proper Bandages to Upper and Lower Extremities

  1. 3-15. Shoulder Bandage

  2. 3-16. Elbow Bandage

  3. 3-17. Hand Bandage

  4. 3-18. Leg (Upper and Lower) Bandage

  5. 3-19. Knee Bandage

  6. 3-20. Foot Bandage

Chapter 4. First Aid for Fractures

  1. 4-1. Kinds of Fractures

  2. 4-2. Signs/Symptoms of Fractures (081-831-1000)

  3. 4-3. Purposes of Immobilizing Fractures

  4. 4-4. Splints, Padding, Bandages, Slings, and Swathes (081-831-1034)

  5. 4-5. Procedures for Splinting Suspected Fractures (081-831-1034)

  6. 4-6. Upper Extremity Fractures (081-831-1034)

  7. 4-7. Lower Extremity Fractures (081-831-1034)

  8. 4-8. Jaw, Collarbone, and Shoulder Fractures

  9. 4-9. Spinal Column Fractures (081-831-1000)

  10. 4-10. Neck Fractures (081-831-1000)

Chapter 5. First Aid for Climatic Injury

  1. 5-1. Heat Injuries

  2. 5-2. Cold Injuries

Chapter 6. First Aid for Bites and Stings

  1. 6-1. Types of Snakes

  2. 6-2. Snakebites

  3. 6-3. Human and Other Animal Bites

  4. 6-4. Marine (Sea) Animals

  5. 6-5. Insect Bites/Stings

  6. 6-6. Table

Chapter 7. First Aid In Toxic Environments

Section I. Individual Protection and First Aid Equipment for Toxic Substances

  1. 7-1. Toxic Substances

  2. 7-2. Protective and First Aid Equipment

Section II. Chemical-Biological Agents

  1. 7-3. Classification

  2. 7-4. Conditions for Masking Without Order Or Alarm

  3. 7-5. First Aid for A Chemical Attack (081-831-1030 And 081-831-1031)

Section III. Nerve Agents

  1. 7-6. Background Information

  2. 7-7. Signs/Symptoms Of Nerve Agent Poisoning (081-831-1030 And 081-831-1031)

  3. 7-8. First Aid for Nerve Agent Poisoning (081-831-1030)

Section IV. Other Agents

  1. 7-9. Blister Agents

  2. 7-10. Choking Agents (Lung-Damaging Agents)

  3. 7-11. Blood Agents

  4. 7-12. Incapacitating Agents

  5. 7-13. Incendiaries

  6. 7-14. First Aid for Biological Agents

  7. 7-15. Toxins

  8. 7-16. Radiological

Chapter 8. First Aid for Psychological Reactions

  1. 8-1. Explanation of Term "Psychological First Aid"

  2. 8-2. Importance of Psychological First Aid

  3. 8-3. Situations Requiring Psychological First Aid

  4. 8-4. Interrelation of Psychological and Physical First Aid

  5. 8-5. Goals of Psychological First Aid

  6. 8-6. Respect for Others' Feelings

  7. 8-7. Emotional and Physical Disability

  8. 8-8. Emotional Reaction to Injury

  9. 8-9. Emotional Reserve Strength of Distressed Soldiers

  10. 8-10. Battle Fatigue (and Other Combat Stress Reactions [Csr])

  11. 8-11. Reactions to Stress

  12. 8-12. Severe Stress or Battle Fatigue Reactions

  13. 8-13. Application of Psychological First Aid

  14. 8-14. Reactions and Limitations

  15. 8-15. Tables

Appendix A. First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages

  1. A-1. First Aid Case With Field Dressings and Bandages

  2. A-2. General Purpose First Aid Kits

  3. A-3. Contents of First Aid Case and Kits

  4. A-4. Dressings

  5. A-5. Standard Bandages

  6. A-6. Triangular and Cravat (Swathe) Bandages

Appendix B. Rescue and Transportation Procedures

  1. B-1. General

  2. B-2. Principles of Rescue Operations

  3. B-3. Task (Rescue) Identification

  4. B-4. Circumstances of the Rescue

  5. B-5. Plan of Action

  6. B-6. Mass Casualties

  7. B-7. Proper Handling of Casualties

  8. B-8. Transportation of Casualties

  9. B-9. Manual Carries (081-831-1040 and 081-831-1041)

  10. B-10. Improvised Litters (Figures B-15, B-16, And B-17) (081-831-1041)

Appendix C. Common Problems/Conditions

Section I. Health Maintenance

  1. C-1. General

  2. C-2. Personal Hygiene

  3. C-3. Diarrhea and Dysentery

  4. C-4. Dental Hygiene

  5. C-5. Drug (Substance) Abuse

  6. C-6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Section II. First Aid for Common Problems

  1. C-7. Heat Rash (or Prickly Heat)

  2. C-8. Contact Poisoning (Skin Rashes)

  3. C-9. Care of the Feet

  4. C-10. Blisters

Appendix E. Digital Pressure

Appendix F. Decontamination Procedures

  1. F-1. Protective Measures and Handling of Casualties

  2. F-2. Personal Decontamination

  3. F-3. Casualty Decontamination

Appendix G. Skill Level 1 Tasks

Glossary

References

Authorization Letter


* This Publication Supersedes Fm 21-11, 7 October 1985.


 

 

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Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
Department of the Navy
2300 E Street NW
Washington, D.C
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Operational Medicine
 Health Care in Military Settings
CAPT Michael John Hughey, MC, USNR
NAVMED P-5139
  January 1, 2001

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